1.1 PADARTHA VIGYAN AVAM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
Theory- Two Papers– 100 Marks Each
Hours of teaching theory - 100
Paper I 100 Marks
- Ayurveda Nirupana
Definition and lakshana of Ayu, composition of Ayu, definition and lakshana of Ayurveda, definition and types of siddhanta, Introduction to basic principles of Ayurveda and their significance.
1.2 Ayurveda Darshana Nirupana
Philosophical background of fundamentals of Ayurveda, Meaning of the word “Darshana” and its omnipresence, evolution of Darshana, their numbers and classification, general introduction of schools for Indian Philosophy with an emphasis on Nyaya, Vaisheshik and Sankhya Darshana. Ayurveda as unique and independent school of thought (philosophical individuality of Ayurveda), definition of Padartha, Lakshana of Padartha. Division and number of Padartha, Bhava and Abhava Padartha; Charak’s opinion regarding this; introduction & description of Karana-Padartha mentioned by Charak.
2. Dravya Vigyaniyam
Definition, lakshana and number of Dravya, Panchabhuta; origin of Panchamahabhuta, Parasparanupravesha (mutual conglomeration), types of panchikaran, Lakshana and types of Prithvi, Lakshana and types of Tejas, Lakshana and types of Jala, Lakshana and types of Vayu, lakshana of Akasha and its Aupadhika types, Kaala Nirupana, etymological derivation, definition and lakshana of the word ‘Kaala’, aupadhik types of Kaala, significance of Kaala in Ayurveda, Dik-nirupanam, significance of Dik and Aupadhik types, lakshana of Atma, description of Purusha mentioned in Ayurveda - Ativahika Purusha/ Sukshma Sharir/ Rashi Purusha/ Chikitsiya Purusha/ Karma Purusha/ Shaddhatvatmak Purusha, initiation of Atma towards perception of knowledge (Atmanah gyana Pravritti). Mano Nirupanam, Lakshana, synonyms of Manas, Mana as substratum of diseases (Manasah Vyadhyashryatram), Guna (qualities), Vishaya (subject), Karma (function), Ubhayaindriyatva and seat of Mana; contribution of Panchamahabhuta and Triguna in physical constitution (Dehaprakriti) and mental faculty; disapproval of dravyatva of Tamas, practical study/application of Dravya in Ayurveda.
3. Guna Vigyaniyam
Etymological derivation, definition and number of Guna, Vaishesika guna, Saartha-Shabda, Sparsha, Rupa, Rasa, Gandha, Adhyatma guna- Buddhi, Sukha, Dwesha, Ichha, Dwesa, Prayatna; Paradi Guna, Gurvadi guna- their introduction and clinical application.
4. Karma Vigyaniyam
Definition, lakshana and types of Karma, types of Karma mentioned in Nyaya, Description of Karma in Ayurveda, practical study/ application of Karma in Ayurveda.
5. Samanya Vigyaniyam
Definition, Lakshana, types of Samanya, practical study/ application of Samanya in reference to Dravya, Guna and Karma.
6. Vishesha Vigyaniyam
Definition, lakshana and types of Vishesa, detailed description of the verse “Pravrittirubhayasyatu”, practical study of Vishesa for clinical application in Ayurveda.
7. Samavaya Vigyaniyam
Definition and Lakshana of Samavaya, practical study of Samavaya for clinical application in Ayurveda.
8. Abhava Vigyaniyam
Definition and lakshana of Abhava Padartha, classification of Abhava- description of Pragabhava, Pradhwansabhava, Atyantabhava, Anyonyabhav and clinical significance of Abhava in Ayurveda.
Paper II – Padartha Vigyan Avum Ayurveda Itihas
Teaching Hours for Padartha Vigyan– 75 Marks
Teaching Hours for Ayurveda Itihas– 25 Marks
Pramana/ Pariksha Vigyaniyam (Epistemology)
- Pariksha Nirupana (means of getting knowledge)
Definition, significance and necessity of pariksha, Two types of anubhava-prama and aprama, Lakshana and types of prama and prameya, Lakshana, causes and types of Smriti (memory), Significance and importance of pramana. Enumeration of pramana according to different schools of philosophy, Four type of methods for examination in Ayurveda (chaturvidha pariksha vidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda, Incorporation of different pramana into three pramana, Use of word pariksha in reference to pramana in classics of Ayurveda and Practical application of methods of examination (pariksha vidhi) in treatment (chikitsa).
- Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana Nirupana (Authoritative instruction/ Spiritual testimony)
Definition of aptopdesha, lakshana of apta, lakshana of sabda, and its types, shabdavritti-abhidha, lakshana, vyanjana, tatparyakhya; shaktigraha hetu, vakya Characteristic; Vakyartha gypanahetu- akanksha, yogyata, sannidhi.
- Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana Nirupana (direct observation or perception)
Definition and lakshana of pratyaksha, Types of origin of pratyaksha jnana, Types of pratyaksha- nirvikalpaka- savikalpaka with description, Description of laukika and alaukika types and their further classification, Sannikarsha Characteristic, six types of sannikarsha, characteristics of sense organs (Indriyanam lakshanam), Classification of Indriya and enumeration. Description of panchapanchaka, establishment of origin of Indriya by panchamahabhuta (bhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (tulyayonitva) of Indriya. Dominance of antahkaran, Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha anupalabdhikaran), Detailed description of direct perception (pratyaksha) by various instruments/ equipments, necessity of other pramana in addition to pratyaksha, Practical study/ application of pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and research grounds.
- Anumana Pariksha/Pramana Nirupanam (Inference)
Definition and lakshana of Anuman. Introduction of anumiti, paramarsha, vyapti, hetu, sadhya, paksha, dristanta etc. Types of anuman mentioned by Charak Samhita & Nyaya Darshana. Characteristic and types of vyapti, Characteristic and types of hetu, description of ahetu and hetwabhasa. Characteristic and significance of tarka. Practical study/ application of anumana pramana in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and research grounds.
5. Yukti Pariksha/ Pramana (Epistemology of reasoning)
Definition and lakshana of yukti pariksha, discussion on yukti pramana. Importance & characteristic of yukti pariksha in Ayurveda. Practical study and utility of yukti pariksha in therapeutics and research.
6. Upamana Pramana Nirupanam (Analogy)
Definition and lakshana of upamana. Application of upamana in therapeutics and research.
7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta Nirupanam (Cause and Effect Theory)
Definition and lakshana of karya and karana. Types of karana. Significance of karya and karana in Ayurveda. Different opinions regarding manifestation of karya from karana satkaryavada, asatkaryavada, parinamvada, arambhavada, paramanuvada, vivartavada, kshanabhangurvada, pilupaka, pitharpaka, anekantavada, swabhavoparamvada.
1. Etymological derivation (Vyutpatti), syntactical derivation (Niruktti) and definition of the word Itihas, necessity of knowledge of history, its significance and utility, means and method of gaining knowledge viz. historical person (Vyakti), subject (Vishaya), time period (Kaal), happening (Ghatna) and their impact on Ayurveda.
2. Introduction of authors of classical texts during Samhita kaal and their contribution especially Atreya, Dhanwantari, Kashyapa, Agnivesha, Sushruta, Bhela, Harita, Charaka, Dridhabala, Vagbhata, Nagarjuna, Jivaka – introduction and contribution.
3. Introduction and establishment of time period of commentators of classical Samhita – Bhattar Harishchandra, Jejjata, Chakrapani, Dalhana, Nishchalakara, Vijayarakshita, Gayadas, Arundatta, Hemadri, Gangadhara, Yonginderanath Sen, Haranchandra.
4. Introduction and time period of authors of compendium (Granthasamgraha kaala) – Acharya Bhavmishra, Sharangadhara, Vrinda, Madhavakara, Shodhala, Govind Das (Author of Bhaishajya Ratnawali), Basavraja etc.
5. Introduction of authors of Modern era –Gan Nath Sen, Yamini Bhushan, Yadavji Tikramji Acharya, Ghanekar, Damodar Sharma Gaur, Priyavrat Sharma, Swami Laksmiram, Dr. P. M. Mehta, Daji Shastri Pade etc.
6. Globalisation of Ayurveda – Misra (Egypt), Sri Lanka, Nepal etc. – expansion of Ayurveda in above mentioned civilisations.
7. Developmental actions for Ayurveda in post-independence period, development in educational trends, establishment of different committees. their recommendations, Central Council of Indian Medicine, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, foundation of department of AYUSH, its introduction and activities, Drug and Cosmetic Act, Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia Committees formation and activities of organisations and institutions like Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeta etc. Activities in field of Research in Ayurveda according to different subjects. Initiation for writing down a text, different councils of vaidya and their activities.
8. Publications of Ayurveda journals and magazines, WHO, status of Ayurveda on International grounds in present era.
Reference Books for Padartha Vigyan
1. Padartha Vigyan Acharya Ramraksha Pathak
2. Ayurvediya Padartha Vigyana Vaidya Ranjit Rai
3. Ayurved Darshana Acharya Rajkumar Jain
4. Padartha Vigyana Kashikar
5. Padartha Vigyana Balwant Shastri
6. Sankhya Tantra Kaumadi Gajanan Shastri
7. Psycho Pathology in Indian Medicine Dr. S.P. Gupta
8. Charak Evum Sushrut ke Prof. Jyotirmitra Acharya
Darshanik Vishay ka Adhyayan
9. Ayurvediya Padartha Vigyana Dr. Ayodhya Prasad Achal
10. Padartha Vigyana Dr. Vidyadhar Shukla
11. Padartha Vigyana Dr. Ravidutta Tripathi
12. Ayurvediya Padartha Vigyana Vaidya Ramkrishna Sharma
13. Ayurvediya Padartha Vigyan Parichaya Vaidya Banwari lal Gaur
14. Ayurvediya Padartha Darshan Pandit Shivhare
15. Padhartha Vigyan Dr Shailaja Srivastava
16. Useful Parts of Charak,
Sushrut and Vagbhata
Reference Books for Ayurved Itihas
- Upodghata of Kashyapa Samhita Rajguru Hem Raj Sharma
Paragraph of acceptance of Indian medicine
2. Upodghata of Rasa Yogasagar Vaidya Hariprapanna Sharma
3. Ayurveda Ka Itihas Kaviraj Suram Chand
4. Ayurveda Sutra Rajvaidya Ram Prasad Sharma
5. History of Indian Medicine (1-3 part) Dr. Girindra Nath Mukhopadhyaya
6. A Short history of Aryan Medical Science Bhagwat Singh
7. History of Indian Medicine J. Jolly
8. Hindu Medicine Zimer
9. Classical Doctrine of Indian Medicine Filiyosa
10. Indian Medicine in the classical age Acharya Priyavrata Sharma
11. Indian Medicine (Osteology) Dr. Harnley
12. Ancient Indian Medicine Dr. P. Kutumbia
13. Madhava Nidan and its Chief Dr. G.J. Mulenbelt
Commentaries (Chapters highlighting history)
14. Ayurveda Ka Brihat Itihasa Vaidya Atridev Vidyalankara
15. Ayurveda Ka Vaigyanika Itihasa Acharya Priyavrata Sharma
16. Ayurveda Ka Pramanika Itihasa Prof. Bhagwat Ram Gupta
17. History of Medicine in India Acharya Priyavrata Sharma
18. Vedomein Ayurveda Vaidya Ram Gopal Shastri
19. Vedomein Ayurveda Dr. Kapil Dev Dwivedi
20. Science and Philosophy of Indian Medicine Dr. K.N. Udupa
21. History of Indian Medicine from Dr. Jyotirmitra
Premoryana to Kushana Period
22. An Appraisal of Ayurvedic Material in
Buddhist literature Dr. Jyotirmitra
23. Mahayana Granthon mein nihita Dr. Ravindra Nath Tripathi
24. Jain Ayurveda Sahitya Ka Itihasa Dr. Rajendra Prakash Bhatnagar
25. Ayurveda- Prabhashaka Jainacharya Acharya Raj Kumar Jain
26. Charaka Chintana Acharya Priyavrata Sharma
27. Vagbhata Vivechana Acharya Priyavrata Sharma
28. Atharvaveda and Ayurveda Dr. Karambelkara
29. Ayurvedic Medicine Past and Present Pt. Shiv Sharma
30. Ancient Scientist Dr. O.P. Jaggi
31. Luminaries of Indian Medicine Dr. K.R. Shrikantamurthy
32. Ayurveda Ke Itihasa Ka Parichaya Dr. Ravidutta Tripathi
33. Ayurveda Ke Pranacharya Ratnakara Shastri
34. Ayurveda Itihasa Parichaya Prof. Banwari Lal Gaur
Recommendation of Expert Committee for further consideration
Padarath Vigyan is the fundamental Base of Ayurved. So, knowledge of Padarath Vigyan is very essential for each and every Graduate of Ayurved, but unfortunately a new Gazette Notification of India i.e, April 2012 practical part is totally deleted in Padarath Vigyan. The Expert Committee strongly recommends that the Practical and Vive of Padarath Vigyan for 75 Marks and simultaneously for Oral of Itihas Paper 25 Marks must be kept.
Expert Committee once again strongly suggests that Padarath Vigyan Paper must be separate and like that Paper of Itihas also must be separate.