SUBJECT : Kriya Sharir
Proposed Syllabus For MD(Ay) -Preliminary
After the completion of one year of study, the student must be:
- Able to explain the basic concepts of Ayurveda Physiology and able to understand the basic concepts of contemporary medical physiology.
- Able to explain the differences between the ways of understanding human body according to Ayurveda and contemporary medical physiology.
- Able to draw relevant correlations between the fundamentals of Ayurvedic physiology and the fundamentals of contemporary Physiology.
- Able to search and understand the relevant references from Ayurveda Saṃhitās related to Kriyā Śārīra and to be able to search and understand the references from different commentaries.
- Able to search recent literature in the field of Kriyā Śārīra and in contemporary physiology by consulting scholarly research journals and different databases such as PubMed and DHARA.
- Competent and motivated enough to carry out the research project during the next two years on the basis of established ethical standards of research.
- Able to discuss the applications of the fundamentals of Ayurveda in clinical / experimental research setup.
- Able to comprehend reasonably well the Saṃskṛta literature of Ayurveda and also be able to transliterate the Saṃskṛta verses as per accepted international standards along with translating them reasonably well into English.
Paper -2- Part A (50 Marks)
Description of the following fundamental principles of Kriyā Śārīra.
- Theory of Loka-Puruṣa Sāmya
- Pañcamahābhūta principle
- Sāmānya – Viśeṣa principle
- Kārya-Kāraṇa principle
- Tridoṣa Siddhānta: Vāta-Pitta-Kapha
- Fundamental aspects of Gurvādi Guṇāḥ and their relationship with Doṣa-Dhātu-Mala
- Description of Ojas-Prāṇa-Agni
- Process of Āhāra Parināma, including Āhārapariṇāmakara Bhāva and Aṣṭa Āhāra Vidhi Viśeṣāyatana
- Physiological importance of Agni, its classification and functions
- Dhātupoṣaṇa theories
- Essentials of the concepts of Atmā, Manas and Indriya.
- Essentials of Prakṛti and Aṣṭavidha Sāra.
- Essentials of all Srotāṃsi – their functions and importance of Srotomūla
Paper -2- Part B (50 Marks)
Description of essential and relevant understandings related to contemporary physiology, both general physiology and systemic physiology.
- Essentials of Cell Physiology – organization of cell.
- Membrane Physiology- Transport across cell membrane, Action potentials and resting membrane potentials
- Homeostasis- Negative and Positive Feedback mechanisms
- Essentials of Cardiovascular physiology- cardiac cycle, regulation of heart rate and Blood pressure
- Essentials of Respiratory Physiology- Regulation of respiration-chemical and neural, Gaseous exchange, transportation of gases
- Gastrointestinal physiology- various enzyme secretions and their actions, Gastrointestinal hormones, Enteric nervous system
- Nervous system physiology- ANS, Somatic nervous system, reflexes, general and special sensations, higher mental functions, functions of all parts of brain, brainstem and spinal cord
- Blood - Blood cells-RBCs, WBCs, Platelets. Plasma proteins. Immunity.
- Muscle physiology- properties and mechanisms of contraction of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles
- Physiology of excretion- stages of urine formation, functions of different parts of nephrons.
- Endocrine physiology. Classification of hormones, important hormones secreted by Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal glands, Pancreas and their functions. Functions of reproductive hormones.
PRACTICALS (100 marks)
After the completion of the practical study for one year, the student should be able to:
- Perform all these experiments independently
- Explain the principles involved in all these experiments
Assessment of Prakriti
Assessment of Saara
Microscopic examination of blood
Total RBC count
Total WBC count
Differential leukocyte count
Packed cell volume (PCV)
Blood grouping and Rh typing
Collection of urine
Test for normal constituents of urine.
Specific gravity and reaction of urine
Bile salts and pigments
Reference books / journal articles/ web resources:
As mentioned in the final year MD(Ay) Kriya Sharir curriculum.
Distribution of Marks:
Practical: Ayurveda Practical-25
Modern Physiology Practical-25
POST-GRADUATE CURRICULUM FOR M.D. (Ay) KRIYASHARIR
The purpose of this programme is to impart a standard Ayurveda Physiology (Kriya Sharir) training at post-graduate level so that a competent Ayurveda physiologist, capable of conducting independent research for the advancement of the science of Ayurveda, and a good teacher in Ayurveda Physiology can be produced.
- SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Learning should encompass the following domains: Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective.
A candidate upon successfully qualifying in the MD (Ay) Kriya Sharir examinations should:
- Understand and deal with all aspects of Ayurveda physiology related to Doṣa-Dhātu-Mala-Agni-Ojas-Srotas etc. along with an understanding of the interplay between these entities as explained in Ayurveda.
- Have a clear understanding of the contemporary physiology related to all organ-systems along with an understanding of the interplay between these systems.
- Have an ability to compare and contrast the ways of understanding the functions of human body according to Ayurveda and according to contemporary physiology.
- Have a clear understanding of the recent scientific advances in the field of physiology and allied disciplines and must be able to utilize this knowledge to plan and conduct relevant clinical/experimental research that would help in developing deeper insights on the functioning of human body.
- Have a clear understanding of the areas where Ayurveda Physiology can contribute further in the development of different streams of current sciences.
- Be motivated towards the process of lifelong learning, self study and active learning
- Be able to critically evaluate published journal literature.
- Be able to effectively teach undergraduate and post graduate Ayurveda students, by selecting appropriate teaching techniques and resources.
- Be able to demonstrate to the students how the knowledge of physiology can effectively be used in a variety of clinical settings to solve diagnostic and therapeutic problems.
- Be able to effectively use the library facilities including electronic and internet based resources such as PubMed and DHARA (Digital Helpline for Ayurveda Research Articles).
- Be able to participate and present scientific material in various workshops/seminars etc. in Ayurveda Physiology as well as allied departments.
- Uphold the prestige of the discipline amongst the fraternity of Ayurveda professionals.
Postgraduate students should be trained according to the syllabus provided in the Course Content given below.
- The postgraduate curriculum should include the entire undergraduate curriculum in detail with recent advances in each topic.
- Postgraduate students should attend all undergraduate lectures, practicals, tutorials and give undergraduate exams.
- The training programme should consist of lectures taken by the faculty, practical sessions, seminars, symposia, journal clubs and group discussions.
- Maintenance of practical file should be compulsory. Based on the available facilities, departments can prepare a list of post-graduate experiments pertaining to basic and applied Ayurveda physiology.
- Research methodology and biostatistics must be made a part of the curriculum. There should be regular classes in Biostatistics in the postgraduate course.
- Postgraduates should be regularly assessed during their 3 years of MD(Ay)
- A log book should be maintained by the postgraduate students and it should be evaluated at the time of final examination.
- They should also be trained in research methodologies of Ayurveda Physiology which will include conduction of a research project with submission of thesis and presentation of data.
- The postgraduate students should be able to teach Ayurveda Physiology to undergraduate students.
- Multi disciplinary seminars with active participation of postgraduates of Pre, Para and Clinical subjects should be incorporated in the academic calendar.
- Planning a research project on the basis of standard ethical practices and completing the research project and submission of thesis/ dissertation
- Using standard statistical software and to apply suitable statistical tests and to interpret the results
- Carrying out literature-search related to any topic using library and Internet-based resources
- Writing a research paper / systematic review and communicating the same to a scholarly journal
Teaching and Communication Skills
- Fundamental principles of medical education technology: process of curriculum designing, assessment, examination and evaluation methods
- Application of suitable teaching method: Early introduction of case, Case-based learning, Small group discussions etc.
- Preparation of suitable audio-visual contents and other teaching resources
Skills in performing laboratory based and human physiology experiments
- Should be able to establish a Kriyā Śārīra Laboratory and be able to perform, teach and demonstrate all experiments listed under practical section.
Paper- I Śarīra Kriyā Vijñāna (Doṣa-Dhātu-Mala Vijñāna)
- Theory of Pan͂camahābhūta
- Kārya-Kāraṇa principle
- Principle of Loka-Puruṣa Sāmya
- Importance of Sāmānya - Viśeṣa principle.
- Different views on the composition of Puruṣa and the importance of Cikitsya Puruṣa.
- Importance of Gurvādi Guṇa in Ayurveda.
- General description of Tridoṣa theory
- Mutual relationship between Triguṇa-Tridoṣa-Pan͂camahābhūta-Indriya.
- Mutual relationship between Ṛtu-Doṣa-Rasa-Guṇa.
- Biological rhythms of Tridoṣa on the basis of Day-Night-Age-Season and Food intake.
- Role of Doṣa in the formation of Prakṛti of an individual.
- Role of Doṣa in maintaining health.
- Vāta Doṣa: General locations (Sthāna), general attributes (Guṇa) and general functions (Sāmānya Karma). Five subdivisions of Vāta with their specific locations, specific properties, and specific functions (Prāṇa, Udāna, Samāna, Vyāna, Apāna)
- Pitta Doṣa: General locations (Sthāna), general attributes (Guṇa) and general functions (Sāmānya Karma). Five subdivisions of Pitta with their specific locations, specific properties, and specific functions (Pācaka, Ran͂jaka, Ālocaka, Bhrājaka, Sādhaka). Similarities and differences between Agni and Pitta.
- Kapha Doṣa: General locations (Sthāna), general attributes (Guṇa) and general functions (Karma) of Kapha. Five subdivisions of Kapha with their specific locations, specific properties, and specific functions (Bodhaka, Avalaṃbaka, Kledaka, Tarpaka, Śleṣaka).
- Applied physiology of Tridoṣa principle: Kriyākāla, Doṣa Vṛddhi-Doṣa Kṣaya.
- Dhātu Poṣaṇa: Process of nourishment of Dhātu. Description of various theories of Dhātu Poṣaṇa (Kṣīra-Dadhi, Kedārī-Kulya, Khale Kapota etc).
- Dhātu: General introduction and definition of Dhātu. Formation, Definition (Nirukti), Distribution, Attributes, quantity, classification, Pāñcabhautika composition and Functions of all seven Dhātus in detail: Rasa, Rakta, Māṃsa, Meda, Asthi, Majjā, Śukra.
- Applied physiology of Dhātu: Manifestations of Kṣaya and Vṛiddhi of each Dhātu. Description of Dhātu Pradoṣaja Vikāra.
- Description of Āśraya and Āśrayī kind of relationship between Doṣa and Dhātu.
- Description of the characteristic features of Aṣṭavidha Sāra. Description of Rasavaha, Raktavaha, Māṃsavaha, Medovaha, Asthivaha, Majjāvaha and Śukravaha Srotāṃsi along with their Mūlasthāna.
- Ojas: Definition, Formation, Distribution, Properties, Quantity, Classification and Functions of Ojas. DescriptionofVyādhikṣamitva. Bala Vṛddhikara Bhāva. Classification of Bala. Relation between Śleṣmā, Bala and Ojas.
- Applied physiology of Ojas: Etiological factors and manifestations of Ojakṣaya, Visraṃsa and Vyāpat. Physiological and clinical significance of Oja.
- Upadhātu: General introduction and Definition of the term ‘Upadhātu’. Formation, Nourishment, Classification, Quantity, Properties, Distribution and functions ofeach Upadhātu.
- Stanya: Characteristic features and methods of assessing Śuddha and Dūṣita Stanya, Manifestations of Vṛddhi and Kṣaya of Stanya.
- Ārtava: Characteristic features of Śuddha and Dūṣita Ārtava. Differences between Raja and Ārtava, physiology of Ārtavavaha Srotāṃsi.
- Tvak: Layer-wise diseases of Tvak.
- Physiology of Mala - Definition of the term ‘Mala’. Āhāramala: Enumeration and description of the process of formation of Āhāramala. Definition, Formation, Properties, Quantity and Functions of Purīṣa, Mutra and Vāta (Malarūpi Vāta). Manifestations of Vṛddhi and Kṣhaya of Purīṣa and Mūtra.
- Sveda – Definition, Formation, Properties, Quantity and Functions of Svedavaha Srotāṃsi. Formation of Sveda. Manifestations of Vṛddhi and Kṣaya of Sveda.
- Dhātumala – Definition, Formation, Distribution, Properties, Quantity, Classification and Functions of each Dhātumala whichever applicable.
Paper-II (Prakṛti- Sattva- Sārādi Vijñāna)
- Deha-Prakṛti: Various definitions and synonyms for the term ‘Prakṛti’. Factors influencing the Prakṛti. Classification of Deha-Prakṛti. Characteristic features of the individuals belonging to each kind of Deha-Prakṭi.
- Pan͂cajn͂anendriya : Physiological description of Pan͂cajn͂anendriya and physiology of perception of Śabda, Sparśa, Rūpa, Rasa, Gandha. Indriya-pan͂ca-pan͂caka; Physiological description of Karmendriya.
- Manas – Definition, Distribution, Properties, Quantity, Classification, Functions and Objects of Manas.
- Ātmā – Definition, Distribution and Properties of Ātmā. The difference between Paramātmā and Jīvātmā; Characteristic features of existence of Ātmā.
- Buddhi – Location, classification and functions of Buddhi; Physiology of Dhī, Dhṛti and Smṛti.
- Nidrā – Nidrotpatti, Nidrā bheda, physiological and clinical significance of Nidra; Svapnotpatti and Svapnabheda.
Paper-III (Āhāra Pāka Prakriyā)
- Āhāra: Definition and significance of Āhāra. Classification of Āhāra. Rules for consuming food: Āhāra-vidhi-vidhāna. Factors to be considered while consuming food: Aṣṭa āhāravidhi viśeṣāyatana, Factors responsible for proper digestion of the food: Āhārapariṇāmakara bhāva.
- Āhārapāka: Process of digestion from Ayurveda perspective. Description of Annavaha Srotāṃsi and their Mūla. Description of Avasthāpāka. Role of Bodhaka Kapha, Prāṇa Vāyu, Kledaka Kapha, Samāna Vāyu, Pācaka Pitta and Apāna Vāyu in the process of digestion. Separation of Sāra and Kiṭṭa. Absorption of Sāra. Genesis of Vāta-Pitta-Kapha during Āhārapāka process.
- Definition of the term Koṣṭha. Physiological classification of Koṣṭha and the characteristics of each kind of Koṣṭha.
- Agni: Description of the importance of Agni. Classification of Agni. Locations, properties and functions of Jaṭharāgni, Bhūtāgni, and Dhātvagni.
- Applied physiology of Agni in Kriyā Śārīra and Cikitsā.
- Description of the aetiology and featuresof Annavaha Srotoduṣṭi. Applied physiology of Annavaha Srotāṃsi: Arocaka, Ajīrṇa, Atīsāra, Grahaṇī, Chardi, Pariṇāma Śūla Agnimāndya, Atyagni etc.
- Description of the process of digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins in human gastrointestinal tract. Different digestive juices, their enzymes and their mechanisms of action. Functions of Salivary glands, Stomach, Pancreas, Small intestine, Liver and large intestine in the process of digestion and absorption.
- Movements of the gut (deglutition, peristalsis, defecation etc.) and their control. Role of neuro-endocrine mechanisms in the process of digestion and absorption. Enteric nervous system.
- Applied physiology of gastrointestinal tract: Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Malabsorption etc.
- Recent understandings related to the gut microbiota and their role in health and disease.
- Introduction to biochemical structure, properties and classification of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Description of the processes involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Vitamins: sources, daily requirement and functions. Physiological basis of signs and symptoms of hypo and hyper-vitaminosis.
Paper-IV (Modern Physiology)
A brief history of Physiology:
- The major historical milestones of evolution of modern physiology related to homeostasis, cardiovascular system, Respiratory system, Digestive system, urinary system, nervous system etc.
- The contributions of scientists such as Caraka, Sushruta, Vagbhata, Aristotle, Galen, William Harvey, Charles Darwin, Walter Bradford Cannon, Edward Jenner, Claude Bernard, Paul Ehrlich, Landsteiner, Banting and Macleod.
- Definition and mechanisms of maintenance of Homeostasis. Cell as the living unit of the body. Membrane Physiology. Transportation of various substances across cell membrane. Resting membrane potentials and action potentials. The internal environment. Genetic code, its expression, and regulation of gene expression.
Physiology of Neuro-Immune-Endocrine Mechanisms:
- Physiology of Nervous System. General introduction to nervous system: neurons, mechanism of propagation of nerve impulse.
- Differences between CNS, PNS and ANS. Sensory and motor functions of nervous system. Functions of different parts of brain - Cerebral cortex, Sensory and motor areas of the cortex. Hypothalamus, Limbic system, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla and Cerebellum.
- Physiology of special senses. Intelligence, Memory, Learning and Motivation.
- Physiology of sleep and dreams. Physiology of speech and articulation; Physiology of temperature regulation. Introduction to EEG.
- Physiology of Endocrine system. Classification and characteristics of different hormones. Description of hormones secreted by Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid glands, Pancreas, Adrenal glands and their physiological effects.
- Effects of hypo and hyper-secretion of various hormones.
- Male and female reproductive physiology. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Hormonal regulation of uterine and ovarian cycles. Physiology of pregnancy and lactation. Parturition.
- Physiology of bones and teeth. Regulation of Calcium metabolism.
- Physiological significance of Adipose tissue. Endocrine functions of adipose tissue. Circulating lipids. Description of lipoproteins like VLDL, LDL and HDL and their composition.
- Physiology of immune system. Definition and classification of immunity: Innate, acquired and artificial. Mechanisms involved in humoral and cell mediated immunity.
- Physiological basis of immunization. Essentials of hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Inflammation.
Cardiovascular physiology, Respiratory physiology and Blood:
- Physiology of Cardio-Vascular system: Functional anatomy of cardiovascular system. Cardiac cycle. Heart sounds. Regulation of cardiac output and venous return. Physiological basis of ECG. Heart-rate and its regulation. Arterial pulse. Systemic arterial blood pressure and its control. Regional circulations. Physiology of lymphatic circulation.
- Physiology of Respiratory system: Functional anatomy of respiratory system. Ventilation. Mechanism of respiration. Exchange and transportation of gases. Neural and chemical control of respiration. Spirometry and lung function tests. Artificial respiration.
- Functions of Haemopoetic system: Composition and functions of blood and blood cells. Haemopoiesis- (stages and development of RBCs, WBCs and platelets); Introduction to bone marrow: composition and functions of bone marrow. Structure and functions of haemoglobin, mechanism of blood clotting, study of platelets. physiological basis of blood groups. Principles of blood transfusion, plasma proteins- synthesis and functions. Applied physiology: anaemia, jaundice.
- Physiology of muscles. Classification of muscles. Electrical and mechanical properties of Cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles.
Physiology of Excretion:
- Physiology of excretion. Functional anatomy of urinary tract. Functions of kidneys. Mechanism of formation of urine. Control of micturition. Renal function tests.
- Structure and functions of skin, sweat glands and sebaceous glands.
Bridge areas including recent advances:
- Recent studies in biorhythms and the possible implications of these studies to the understandings related to Doṣha biorhythms.
- Recent advances in Neuro-Immune-Endocrine physiology and the possible implications of these in understanding the theory of Tridoṣa.
- Recent advances in understanding the Prakṛti. Brief description related to some of the recent studies exploring the genetic / biochemical / haematological / electrophysiological basis for Prakṛti. Introduction to the recent tools to assess Prakṛti (questionnaires and software).
- Recent advances in tissue engineering and stem cell research and their applicability in Ayurveda Kriyā Śārīra.
- Introduction to Systems Biology and introduction to recent advances in Systems Physiology.
Assessment of Prakṛti
Assessment of Sāra
Assessment of Doṣa Vṛddhi Kṣaya Lakṣana
Assessment of Dhātu Vṛddhi – Kṣaya Lakṣaṇa
Assessment of Agni
Assessment of Koṣṭha
Assessment of Śarīra Bala through Vyāyāma Śakti
Use and care of microscope
Total RBC count
Total WBC count
Differential leukocyte count
Packed cell volume (PCV)
Blood grouping and Rh typing
Collection of urine
Specific gravity and reaction of urine
Detecting the presence of Albumin in urine
Detecting the presence of Sugar in urine
Detecting the presence of Ketone bodies in urine
Detecting the presence of Bile salts and bile pigments in urine
Clinical methods of examining cardiovascular system
Examination of Arterial Pulse
Arterial blood pressure measurement: Effect of posture, exercise and cold pressor test on Blood Pressure
Clinical examination of Respiratory System
Lung Function Tests including Spirometry
Clinical examination of nervous system
Examination of higher mental functions
Examination of cranial nerves
Examination of reflexes
Examination of sensory functions
Examination of motor functions
Examination of Autonomic Nervous System
Examination should be so planned that the student’s knowledge, skills and attitudes listed in this document must be assessed compulsorily by suitable methods such as written examination, practical examination, thesis evaluation and viva voce examination.
- Ayurvediya Kriyasharir - Ranjit rai Desai
- Kayachikitsa Parichaya - C. Dwarikanath
- Prakrit Agni Vigyan - C. Dwarikanath
- Sharir Kriya Vigyan - Shiv Charan Dhyani
- Abhinava Sharir Kriya Vigyana - Acharya Priyavrata Sharma
- Dosha Dhatu Mala Vigyana - Shankar Gangadhar Vaidya
- Prakrita Dosha Vigyana - Acharya Niranjana Dev
- Tridosha Vigyana - Shri Upendranath Das
- Sharira Tatva Darshana - Hirlekar Shastri
- Prakrita Agni Vigyana - Niranjana Dev
- Deha Dhatvagni Vigyana - Vd. Pt. Haridatt Shastri
- Sharir Kriya Vigyana (Part 1-2) - Acharya Purnchandra Jain
- Sharir Kriya Vigyana - Shri Moreshwar Dutt. Vd.
- Sharira Kriya Vijnana (Part 1 and 2) – Nandini Dhargalkar
- Dosha Dhatu Mala Vigyana - Basant Kumar Shrimal
- Abhinava Sharir Kriya Vigyana - Dr. Shiv Kumar Gaur
- Pragyogik Kriya Sharir - Acharya P.C. Jain
- Kaya Chikitsa Parichaya - Dr. C. Dwarkanath
- Concept of Agni - Vd. Bhagwan Das
- Purush Vichaya - Acharya V.J. Thakar
- Kriya Sharir - Prof. Yogesh Chandra Mishra
- Sharir Kriya Vigyana - Prof. Jayaram Yadav &Dr. Sunil Verma.
- Sharir Kriya – Part I & Part II – Dr. Ranade, Dr. Deshpande & Dr. Chobhe
- Human Physiology in Ayurveda - Dr Kishor Patwardhan
- Sharirkriya Vignyan Practical Hand Book– Dr.Ranade, Dr.Chobhe, Dr. Deshpande
- Sharir Kriya Part 1 – Dr.R.R.Deshapande, Dr.Wavhal
- Sharir Kriya Part 2 – Dr.R.R.Deshapande, Dr.Wavhal
- Concept of Prikriti & Life style – Dr. Ranade, Dr. Deshpande
- Textbook of Physiology - Gyton & Hall
- Review of medical physiology – William Ganong
- Essentials Of Medical Physiology - Sembulingam, K.
- Concise Medical Physiology - Chaudhari, Sujit. K.
- Fundamental of Anatomy & Physiology - Martini
- Principals of Anatomy & Physiology - Tortora & Grabowski
- Human Physiology - Richards, Pocock
- Samson Wrights Applied Physiology, Keele, Neil, joels
- Brainstem Control of Wakefulness And Sleep - Steriade, Mirce
- Endocrine System - Sharama
- An Introduction to Human Physiology - Green, J.h.
- Ancient Indian Medicine - Kutumbiah P.
- Biographical History of Indian Medicine - Srikanthamurthy KR
- Ayurveda Kriya Sharira- Yogesh Chandra Mishra
- Textbook of Medical Physiology- Indu Khurana
- Tridosha Theory- Subrahmanya Shastri
- Statistics in Medicine- K. Syamalan
Important journals to refer:
- Advances in Physiology Education
- Academic Medicine
- Indian journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
- Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
- Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- All journals of American Physiological Society
- Journal of Physiology
Important research papers to refer:
- Hong KW, Oh B. Overview of personalized medicine in the disease genomic era. BMB Rep. 2010 Oct;43(10):643-8.
- Prasher B, Negi S, Aggarwal S, Mandal AK, Sethi TP, Deshmukh SR, Purohit SG, Sengupta S, Khanna S, Mohammad F, Garg G, Brahmachari SK; Indian Genome Variation Consortium, Mukerji M. Whole genome expression and biochemical correlates of extreme constitutional types defined in Ayurveda. J Transl Med. 2008 Sep 9;6:48.
- Patwardhan B, Bodeker G. Ayurvedic genomics: establishing a genetic basis for mind-body typologies. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):571-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 18564959.
- Bhushan P, Kalpana J, Arvind C. Classification of human population based on HLA gene polymorphism and the concept of Prakriti in Ayurveda. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Apr;11(2):349-53.
- Ghodke Y, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Traditional Medicine to Modern Pharmacogenomics: Ayurveda Prakriti Type and CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphism Associated with the Metabolic Variability. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print]
- Aggarwal S, Negi S, Jha P, Singh PK, Stobdan T, Pasha MA, Ghosh S, Agrawal A; Indian Genome Variation Consortium, Prasher B, Mukerji M. EGLN1 involvement in high-altitude adaptation revealed through genetic analysis of extreme constitution types defined in Ayurveda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 2;107(44):18961-6. Epub 2010 Oct 18.
- Tav Pritesh Sethi, Bhavana Prasher and Mitali Mukerji. Ayurgenomics: A New Way of Threading Molecular Variability for Stratified Medicine. ACS Chemical Biology.2011(6):875-880
- Marchetti B, Morale MC, Gallo F, Batticane N, Farinella Z, Cioni M. Neuroendocrineimmunology (NEI) at the turn of the century: towards a molecular understanding of basic mechanisms and implications for reproductive physiopathology. Endocrine. 1995 Dec;3(12):845-61.
- Licinio J, Frost P. The neuroimmune-endocrine axis: pathophysiological implications for the central nervous system cytokines and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormone dynamics. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2000 Oct;33(10):1141-8.
- Turrin NP, Rivest S. Unraveling the molecular details involved in the intimate link between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Nov;229(10):996-1006
- Sewlall S, Pillay V, Danckwerts MP, Choonara YE, Ndesendo VM, du Toit LC. A timely review of state-of-the-art chronopharmaceuticals synchronized with biological rhythms. Curr Drug Deliv. 2010 Dec;7(5):370-88.
- Ohdo S. Chronopharmaceutics: pharmaceutics focused on biological rhythm. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010 Feb;33(2):159-67
- Humes HD. Stem cells: the next therapeutic frontier. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2005;116:167-83; discussion 183-4.
- Bianco P, Robey PG. Stem cells in tissue engineering. Nature. 2001 Nov 1;414(6859):118-21
- Bhattacharya J. The Knowledge of Anatomy and Health in Ayurveda and Modern Medicine: Colonial Confrontation and Its Outcome (online). http://www.ea-journal.com/art/The-knowledge-of-Anatomy-and-Health-inayurveda-and-Modern-Medicine.pdf
- Wujastyk D. Interpreting the image of the human body in premodern India. Int J Hindu Studies 13: 189–228, 2009.
- Kristina Harris, Amira Kassis, Geneviève Major, Chieh J. Chou. Is the Gut Microbiota a New Factor Contributing to Obesity and Its Metabolic Disorders? J Obes. 2012; 2012: 879151.
A few web-based resources: