M.D. (Ayu) Part 1
RASA SHASTRA AND BHAISHAJYA KALPANA . Theory- 100 marks . Practical and Viva-voce - 100 marks
Part-A 50 marks
- Introduction to basic principles of aushadhi yoga (formulations).
- Introduction to methods of analytical, experimental and clinical validation of classical and proprietary Ayurvedic formulations.
- Introduction of different parameters for stability profile of Ayurvedic formulations.
- Concept of pharmacovigilance related to Ayurvedic drugs.
- Concept of pharmacopeia and formulary with introduction of “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India” (API) and “The Ayurvedic Formulary of India” (AFI).
- Introduction to databases of medicinal plants with special reference to CCRAS, ICMR etc.
- Critical evaluation of Rasa Ratnasamuchaya, Rasa Tarangini, Sharngdhara Samhita and Cakradatta with special reference to aushadhi nirmana.
- Introduction to regulatory affairs related to Ayurvedic drug formulations in India and foreign countries like USA, UK, EU etc.
Part-B 50 marks
- Fundamental principl of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, introduction to rasachikitsa, ashudha and apakwa bhasma sevana dosha and its management, introduction to aushadhi sevana kaal and prayoga marga (route of administration).
- Classification of Rasa Dravya - concept and relevance
- Introduction to principles of aushadhi nirmana, concept of Sodhana, Marana, Jaran,Jarana,Murchana, Satvapatana and Amritikarana. Concept of Kashaya. Panchavidha kashaya and other kalpana.
- Introduction to new dosage forms.
- Introduction to advance instruments of analysis like XRD, XRF, SEM-E-Dax, ICP analysis, Chromatography: TLC, Gas Chromatography, HPTLC , concept of Nano technology and its relevance to aushadhi nirmana.
- Concept of Rasashala with Introduction to pharmacy in accordance with the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
- Introduction to toxicity studies.
CONTENT OF THE PRACTICALS-
1. Sodhana, Marana, Amritikarana, Satvapatana etc. of Rasa Dravya - 10 practicals
2. Preparation of different Dosage Forms (10)
3. Pharmacopeial standards of Raw and prepared drugs - (20 practicals)
1. Minerals and Metals A) Mineralogical Identification
- Physical form- Crystal and Amorphous
- Hardness on Moh’s scale
- Brittleness test
- Fracture andCleavage
- Streak test
2. Plant Material
A. Macroscopic and Microscopic examination
a) Orgnaoleptic Testing
b) Estimation of Foreign materials
c) Microbial load
d) Moisture content
e) Determination of Ash Value - Total, water soluble and acid insoluble Ash
f) Specific gravity
g) Solubility- Water and alcohol soluble
h) Extract Values- Water and alcohol
j) Determination of Optical density
k) Refractive Index
m) Limit tests for Heavy metals
n) pH estimation
PREPARED DOSAGE FORMS
A. Solid dosage forms
a) Bhasma and Pishti Pariksha
b) Determination of Particle size
c) Limit tests for heavy metals
d) Determination of, moisture content, specific gravity, pH, Acid value.
a) Powders (Churna):-
- Particle size
- Bulk density
- Estimation of Foreign material
- Microbial load
- Moisture content
- Determination of Ash Value - Total, Water soluble and Acid insoluble Ash
- Solubility- Water and alcohol soluble
- Extract Values- Water and alcohol
- Determination of Optical density
- Refractive Index
- Limit tests for Heavy metals
- pH Value estimation
- Uniformity in weight and size
- Tablet Hardness
- Tablet Friabilty
- Tablet Disintegration
- Tablet dissolution
B. Semisolid dosage forms
- Moisture content
- Sugar Content
- Microbial Load
- pH Value
- Specific Gravity
- Determination of Refractive Index
- Acid Value
- Saponification Value
- Iodine Value
- All practicals should be performed in accordance of Authoritative Text Books of Schedule-I of D.C.Act-1940 and classical Book.
- All practicals related to Pharmacopoeial Standards should be performed in accordance of Methods Published in Protocol for testing of ASU Medicines and Laboratory Guide for the Analysis of Ayurveda & Siddha Formulations published by Deptt. AYUSH,G.O.I.
Pattern of Practical Examination
- Practical Record Book with visit record of pharmacy - 10 Marks
- Practicals related to Preparation of Drugs
- Major practical-One - 10 Marks
- Minor practicals-One - 05 Marks
- Drug analysis
- Major practical- one - 10 Marks
- Minor practical- one - 05 Marks
- Spotting - 10 Marks
- Viva-voce - 50 Marks
M.D. (Ayurveda) – Part -2
- History and Chronological evolution of Rasashastra, concept of Raseshwar darshan. Fundamental Principles of Rasashastra and Rasachikitsa, and Technical terminologies (Paribhasha) used in Rasa shastra.
- Detailed knowledge of ancient and contemporary Yantropakarana and their accessories used in aushadhikaran and their contemporary modification such as yantras, mushas, putas, Koshthis, bhrashtris, muffle furnaces and other heating appliances, ovens, driers etc. used in manufacturing of Rasaushadhis in small scale and large scale along with their applications.
- Study of Samskara, Role of agni (Heat), jala and other dravas (water and other processing liquids), kala (Time span), paatra (container) and their significance in aushadhikaran.
- Concept of Bhavana, study of Mardana and its significance and knowledge of ancient and contemporary grinding techniques.
- Detailed Knowledge of different procedures of Shodhana, Jarana Murchana and Marana, concept of Puta, definition, types and specifications of different Putas. Significance of different Putas in relation to Bhasmikaran and therapeutic efficacy of dravya under process. Bhasma pariksha vidhi and its significance in relation to contemporary testing procedures. Amritikaran and Lohitikarana.
- Detailed knowledge of Satva and Druti, Satva shodhan, mardavikaran and Maran of Satva, its significance, in relation to therapeutic efficacy of dravya under process.
- Detailed ancient and contemporary knowledge of Parada and its compounds with reference to source, occurrence, physico-chemical characterization, graahya agraahyatva, Parada dosha, Parada gati, Parada shodhan, Study of Ashta sanskara, ashtadasha sanskara, Hingulottha Parada. Concept of Parada jaran, moorcchana, bandhan, pakshaccheda and marana. Therapeutic properties and uses of Parada.
- Detailed ancient & contemporary knowledge with Geochemical/mineralogical/biological identification, source, occurrence, physico-chemical characterization, graahya-agraahyatva, Shodhan Maranadi vidhi and therapeutic properties and uses of dravyas included in Maharasa, Uparasa, Sadharana rasa, Dhatu, Upadhatu, Ratna, Uparatna, Visha, Upavisha, Sudha varga, Lavan varga, Kshara varga, Sikta varga and other miscellaneous drugs used in Rasashastra.
- Detailed knowledge of manufacturing, pharmacopeial standards, storage, shelf life, therapeutic efficacy, dose, anupana and development of technology with Standard Operating Procedures of processing, standardization, quality control of Bhasmas and Pishtis
Bhasma - Abhraka Bhasma, Svarnamakshika Bhasma, Kasis Bhasma, Svarna Bhasma, Rajat Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma, Loha Bhasma, Mandur Bhasma, Naga Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma,Yashad Bhasma, Trivanga Bhasma, Pittal, Kamsya and Varthaloha Bhasma, Shankha Bhasma, Shukti Bhasma, Kapardika Bhasma, Godanti Bhasma, Praval Bhasma, Mrigashringa Bhasma, Mayurpiccha Bhasma, Kukkutand twaka Bhasma, Hiraka Bhasma, Manikya Bhasma.
Pishti - Praval pishti, Manikya Pishti, Mukta pishti, Jahara mohara pishti, Trinakanta mani pishti.
- Detailed knowledge of manufacturing, storage, shelf life, pharmacopeial standards, therapeutic efficacy, dose, anupana and development of technology with Standard Operating Procedures of processing, standardization and quality control of Kharaliya rasa, Parpati, Kupipakva rasa and Pottali rasa.
- Study of classical texts with special emphasis on Rasarnava, Rasahridaya tantra, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Rasendra Chintamani, Rasa Ratnakar, Rasadhyaya, Rasa Kamdhenu, Anandkanda, Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini, Bhaishajya Ratnavali and relevant portions of Brihatrayi.
1. History and Chronological evolution of Bhaishajya Kalpana, Concept of Bheshaja and Aushadh, fundamental principles of Bhaishajya Kalpana. Technical terminologies (Paribhasha) used in Bhaishajya Kalpana.
2. Collection, storage, shelf life and preservation methods of different fresh and dry Aushadhi dravyas and their graahya agraahyatva
3. Detailed knowledge of Aushadha matra, Aushadha sevan kala, anupana and routes of drug administration, Posology.
4. Detailed knowledge of manufacturing, standardization, quality control, pharmacopeial standards, storage, shelf life and development of technology with Standard Operating Procedures of processing of following dosage forms
i) Panchavidha Kashaya, Churna, Rasakriya, Ghana, Avaleha, Pramathya, Mantha, Panaka, Sarkara, Kshirapaka, Ushnodaka, Aushadha Siddha Udaka, Sadangodaka, Tandulodaka, Laksharasa, Arka, Satva, Kshara, Lavana, Gutika, Vatika, Modaka, Guggulu and Varti.
ii) Sneha Kalpana: Concept of accha sneha and sneha vicharana. Sneha paka, types of sneha paka and sneha siddhi lakshana, sneha murchana. Pharmacokinetic consideration of sneha paka. Role of Sneha in relation to absorption of drug. Knowledge about partition coefficient (Hydro Lipophilic coefficient).
iii) Kritanna Kalpana, Ahara yogiya varga, concept of medicinal and functional food, Food / dietary supplements and neutracuticals
iv) Sandhana kalpana: Madya varga and Shukta varga. Asava yoni. Alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation. Advancements in fermentation technology. Knowledge of regulations in relation to alcoholic drug preparations.
v) Vaahya Prayogartha Kalpana
Lepa, Upanaha, Malahara, Udvartan, Avadhupan, Abhyanga, Dhupan and Dhumrapan, Mukha, Karna, Nasa and Netra Kalpana
vi) Basti Kalpana: Types of basti. Anuvasana and Asthapana basti. Karma, kala and yoga basti. Comparison of basti with evacuation and retention enema.
1. Methods of Extraction: Maceration, percolation, distillation. infusion and decoction.
2. Liquids: Clarified liquid, syrup, elixir, filtration techniques
3. Solid dosage Forms:
Powders: Size reduction, separation techniques, particle size determination, principles of mixing
Tablets: Methods of tableting, suppositories, pessaries and capsules
,sustained release dosage form.
4. Semisolid dosage forms, emulsions, suspensions, creams and ointments, sterilization of ophthalmic preparations
5. Drying, open and closed air drying,freeze drying, vacuum drying and other drying methods pharmaceutical excipients
6. Study of classical texts with special emphasis on Sharngadhara Samhita, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Bhava Prakasha, Yogaratnakar, relevant portions of Brihatrayi, Chakradatta, Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Ayurvedic Formulary of India.
Aushadha Yoga Vigyana
Detailed knowledge of Aushadhi patha samyojan, therapeutic efficacy, mechanism of action, dose, anupan and method of administration of following Aushadhi yogas
1. Kharaliya Rasa
Shwasa kuthara Rasa, Tribhuvana kirti Rasa, Higuleshwara Rasa,
Ananda bhairava Rasa, Maha Lakshmivilasa Rasa, Vasnata kusumakara Rasa, Vasanta malti Rasa, Vrihat vata chintamani Rasa, Laghu suta shekhar Rasa, Suta shekhara Rasa, Ram ban Rasa, Chandra kala Rasa, Yogendra Rasa, Hridyarnava rasa, Grahani kapata Rasa, Garbha pala Rasa, Jalodarari Rasa, Mrityunjaya Rasa, Madhumalini vasanta Rasa, Arsha kuthara Rasa, Krimi mudgara Rasa, Suchika bharana Rasa, Tri netra Rasa, Smruti sagara Rasa, Vata gajankusha Rasa, Agni kumar Rasa, Ekangavir Rasa, Kama dugha Rasa, Purna chandrodaya Rasa, Pratap lankeshwara Rasa, Maha vata vidhwansaka Rasa, Kasturi bhairava Rasa, Ashwa kanchuki Rasa, Gulma kuthara Rasa, Maha jwarankusha Rasa, Chandra mrita Rasa, Kapha ketu Rasa, Prabhakara Vati, Pravala Panchamrita, Gandhaka Rasayana, Chaturbhuj rasa, Navajivan rasa, Shonitargal rasa, Raktapitta kulakandan rasa, Amavatari Rasa, Kravyada Rasa, Garbha chintamani Rasa, Chintamani Rasa, Trilokya chintamani Rasa, Pradarantaka Rasa, Vangeshwara Rasa, Brihat vangeshwara Rasa, Shwasakasa Chintamani Rasa, Arogya vardhini Vati, Chandra prabha Vati, Agni tundi vati, Shankha Vati.
2. Kupipakva Rasa
Rasa Sindura, Makaradhwaja, Sidha makaradhwaja, Samira pannaga Swarnavanga, Malla sindura, Rasa karpura, Rasa pushpa, Manikya Rasa.
3. Parpati Rasa
Rasa Parpati, Loha Parpati, Tamra Parpati, Suwarna Parpati, Gagana Parpati, Vijay Parpati, Panchamrit Parpati, Shwet Parpati, Bola Parpati
4. Pottali Rasa
Rasagarbha pottali, Hemagarbha pottali, Mallagarbha pottali, Hiranyagarbha pottali, Shankagarbha pottali, Lokanatha rasa, Mriganka Pottali
5. Loha Kalpa
Ayaskriti, Loha Rasayana, Amla pittantaka loha, Chandanadi loha, Dhatri loha, Navayasa loha, Putapakva vishama jwarantaka loha, Shilajatwadi loha, Tapyadi loha, Saptamrita loha, Amlapittantaka loha, Chandanadi loha, Dhatri loha, Punarnava Mandura, Amritasara Loha, Shankaramat loha, Pradarantaka loha, Rohitaka loha.
Detailed knowledge of Aushadhi path samyojan,therapeutic efficacy, mechanism of action, dose, anupan and method of administration of following Aushadhi yogas:
1. Panchavidha Kashayas and their Upakalpa
Ardraka swarasa, Tulasi swarasa, Vasa putapaka swarasa, Nimba kalka, Rasona kalka, Kulattha Kwath, Punarnavasthaka kwatha, Rasna saptaka kwatha, Dhanyak hima, Sarivadi hima, Panchakola phanta, Mustadi pramathya, Kharjuradi mantha, Shadanga paniya, Laksha rasa, Ajamoda arka, Yavanyadi arka, Chincha panaka, Candana panaka, Banapsha sharkara, Nimbu sarkara, Darvi rasakriya, Amrita satva, Ardraka satva, Arjuna kshirapaka, Rasona kshirapaka,
2. Kritanna Kalpana
Yavagu, (Krita and Akrita), Ashtaguna manda, Laja manda, Peya, Vilepi, Krishara, Yusha, Mudga yusha, Kulattha yusha, Saptamushtika yusha, Khad, Kambalika, Raga, Shadava, Mamsarasa, Veshavara, Takra, Udasvita, Katvar, Mathita, Chhacchika, Dadhi, Tandulodaka,
Sitopaladi Churna, Talisadi Churna, Triphala Churna, Hingvashtaka Churna, Yashtimadhu Churna, Avipattikara Churna, Swadishta Virechana Churna, Trimada Virechana Churna,
Lavana Bhaskar Churna, Sudarshana Churna, Maha Sudarshana Churna, Gandharva Haritaki Churna, Navayasa Churna, Pushyanuga Churna, Ajamodadi Churna, Hingvadi Churna, Eladi Churna, Dadimashtaka Churna, Trikatu Churna, Vaishwanara Churna
Arogya vardhani vati, Chandra prabha vati, Chitrakadi Gutika,, Sanjivani Vati, Lasunadi vati, Lavangadi Vati, Vyoshadi vati, Khadiradi Vati, Kankayan Vati, Abhayadi modak, Marichyadi gutika, Amalakyadi gutika, Samshamini Vati, Kutaja Ghana vati
Yogaraja Guggulu, Maha yogaraja Guggulu, Trayodashanga Guggulu, Kanchanara Guggulu, Rasnadi Guggulu, Triphala Guggulu, Simhanada Guggulu, Gokshuradi Guggulu, Kaishora Guggulu, Panchatikta Guggulu, Amritadi Guggulu, Vatari Guggulu, Lakshadi Guggulu, Abha Guggulu
Sneha Moorchhana - Ghrita Murchana, Taila Murchhana
Siddha Ghrita- Shatavari Ghrita, Jatyadi Ghrita, Phala Ghrita, Dadimadi Ghrita, Kshira Shatpala Ghrita, Triphala Ghrita, Dhanvantri Ghrita, Amritaprasha Ghrita, Kalyanaka Ghrita, Brahmi Ghrita, Changeri Ghrita, Panchatikta Ghrita, Sukumara Ghrita
Siddha Taila - Maha Narayana Taila, Maha Masha Taila, Bala Taila, Nirgundi Taila, Shadbindu Taila, Vishagarbha Taila, Sahacharadi Taila, Jatyadi Taila, Apamarga Kshara Taila,Tuvaraka Taila, Kshirabala Taila, Lakshadi Taila, Anu Taila, KumKumadi Taila, Hingutriguna Taila, Kottumchukadi Taila, Prasarinyadi Taila, Dhanwantari Taila, Balashwagandhadi Taila, Balaguduchyadi Taila, Nilibhringyadi Taila, Brihadavadi Taila, Irimedadi Taila, Chandanadi Taila, Panchaguna taila, Arka taila
Vasa Avaleha, Brahma rasayana, Chyavanprasha Avaleha, Kushmanda Avaleha, Vyagri Haritaki Avaleha, Dadima Avaleha, Bilvadi Avaleha, Kantakaryavaleha, Haridra Khanda, Narikela khanda, Saubhagya shunthi paka.
8. Asava Arishta –
Lodhrasava, Kumaryasava, Ushirasava, Chandanasava, Kanakasava, Sarivadyasava, Pippalyasava, Lohasava, Vasakasava, Kutajarishta, Draksharishta, Raktamitrarka, Dashamularishta, Abhayarishta, Amritarishta, Ashokarishta, Sarasvatarishta, Arjunarishta, Khadirarishta, Ashwagandha Arishta, Vidangarishta, Takrarishta.
9. Miscellaneous - Phala varti, Chandrodaya varti, Arka lavana, Narikela lavana, Triphala masi, Apamarga kshara, Snuhi kshara, Ksharasutra, Atasi upanaha, Sarjarasa malahara, Gandhaka malahara,Sinduradi Malahar, Shatadhouta Ghrita, Sahasra Dhouta Ghrita, Sikta taila, Dashanga lepa, Doshaghna lepa, Bhallataka taila, Jyotishmati Taila, Bakuchi Taila, Dashanga dhupa, Arshoghna dhupa, Nishadi Netra bindu, Madhutailika Basti, Sneha Basti, Matra Basti, Yoga Basti, Karma Basti, Kala Basti, Piccha Basti, Yapana Basti.
PAPER - IV
Pharmacology and Pharmacy Management
PART - A
- Principles of Pharmacology, Pharmcodynamics & Pharmacokinetics: Absorption, distribution, mechanism of action & Excretion, dose response relationship, structure activity relationship
- Routes of administration of drug
- Factors modifying drug effect, drug interactions, adverse drug reaction and drug toxicity
- Detailed Knowledge of Pharmacovigilance – National and International Scenario. Pharmacovigillance of Ayurvedic Drugs
- Clinical pharmacology: Preclinical & clinical evaluation, Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
- Knowledge of toxicity of metallic, mineral, plant & animal Ayurvedic drugs
- Scope and evolution of pharmacy information resources in pharmacy and pharmaceutical Science
- Packaging materials and Labeling
- Establishment of pharmacy in accordance with GMP.
- Management of pharmacy, store and inventory management, personnel management, Good Manufacturing Practices related to Ayurvedic drug industry.
- Marketing pharmaceutical services, product release and withdrawals, community pharmacy
- Patent and Proprietary Ayurvedic drugs
- Laws Governing Ayurvedic drugs
- Relevant regulatory provisions of Ayurvedic drugs in Drug and Cosmetic Act 1940 and Rules 1945
- Laws pertaining to Drugs and Magic remedies (objectionable advertisement) Act-1954.
- Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) act.
- Food Standards and Safety Act 2006
- Laws pertaining to Narcotics
- Factory and Pharmacy Acts
- Consumer Protection Act -1986
9. Regulatory Affairs related to International Trade and Practices of Ayurvedic Drugs
10. Introduction to Ayurvedic Pharmacoepia of India, Ayurvedic Formulary of India.
11. Introduction to Indian Pharmacoepia, British and United States Pharmacoepia, Pharamcoepial Codex
12. Introduction to Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
Minimum 150 Practicals to be performed covering all the dosage forms.
Educational Visits to minimum Five (5) GMP approved Ayurvedic Pharmacies. Tour report to be submitted at the time of practical examination
Ten days posting in R&D / Production unit in G.M.P. certified Ayurvedic Pharmacy. Project report related to posting, to be submitted at the time of Practical examination.
Minimum attendance in three National Conferences within three academic years
Minimum one research paper on the core contributory work of dissertation published or accepted.
Examinee has to submit supporting documents in relation to above mentioned academic activities at the time of Practical examination
Pattern of Practical Examination
i) Major Practicals: 2 (1 Rasashastra and 1 Bhaishajya Kalpana)
ii) Minor Practicals: 4 (2 Rasashastra and 2 Bhaishajya Kalpana)
Drug testing and Analysis
i) Rasaushadhi – 1
ii) Kashthaushadhi – 1
Power Point Presentation – 10 Min. on any subject topic of choice of the candidate
Viva Voce examination
- Rasahridaya Tantra
- Rasaratna Samuccahaya
- Ayurved Prakasha
- Rasendra Chintamani
- Rasapraksha Sudhakar
- Rasa Chandanshu – CCRAS Publication
11. Sharngadhara Samhita
- Yoga Ratnakara
- Bhaishajya Ratnavali
- Siddha Bhaishajya Manimala
- Ayurvediya Aushadhikarana – Puranik and Dhamanakar
- Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar
- Rasayoga Sagar
- Siddha Bhaishajya Manimala
- Siddha Yoga Samgriha –Yadavaji Trikamji Acharya
- Vaidyaka Paribhasha Pradeepa
- Dravyaguna Vijnan Pat-1 and 2 - Yadavji Trikamji Acharya
- Dravyaguna – Chakradatta CCRAS Publicationita,
- Relevant Parts of Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, . Kashyapa Samhita, Ashtang Hridaya, Ashtang Sangriha
- Remington: Science and Practice of Pharmacy
- Industrial Pharmacy - Lackman
- Text Book of Pharmacology – Goodman and Gilman
- Data Base of Medicinal Plants – CCRAS Publication
- Quality and Standards of Medicinal Plants– ICMR publication
- Quality Control of Ayurvedic Drugs – PLIM, Gaziabad publication
- Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India
- Ayurvedic Formulary of India
- Indian Pharmacopeia
- British Pharmacopeia
- United States Pharmacopeia
- Pharmacopeia Codex
- Current Good Manufacturing Practices
- Drugs and Cosmetic Act 1940 and Rules 1945
- Drugs and Magic remedies (Objectionable advertisement) Act-1954
- Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) act
- Laws pertaining to Narcotics
- Factory and Pharmacy Acts
44. Consumer Protection Act -1986